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8: Testing Hypotheses

In the sampling that we have studied so far the goal has been to estimate a population parameter. But the sampling done by the government agency has a somewhat different objective, not so much to estimate the population mean μ as to test an assertion—or a hypothesis—about it, namely, whether it is as large as 75 or not. The agency is not necessarily interested in the actual value of μ, just whether it is as claimed. Their sampling is done to perform a test of hypotheses, the subject of this chapter.