Work in groups on these problems. You should try to answer the questions without referring to your textbook. If you get stuck, try asking another group for help.

Student Learning Outcomes

The student will compare and contrast empirical data from a random number generator with the uniform distribution.

Collect the Data

Use a random number generator to generate 50 values between zero and one (inclusive). List them in Table. Round the numbers to four decimal places or set the calculator MODE to four places.

Complete the table.

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Calculate the following:

\(\bar{x}\)= _______

s = _______

first quartile = _______

third quartile = _______

median = _______

Organize the Data

Construct a histogram of the empirical data. Make eight bars.

Construct a histogram of the empirical data. Make five bars.

Describe the Data

In two to three complete sentences, describe the shape of each graph. (Keep it simple. Does the graph go straight across, does it have a V shape, does it have a hump in the middle or at either end, and so on. One way to help you determine a shape is to draw a smooth curve roughly through the top of the bars.)

Describe how changing the number of bars might change the shape.

Theoretical Distribution

In words, \(X\) = _____________________________________.

The theoretical distribution of \(X\) is \(X\) ~ U(0,1).

In theory, based upon the distribution \(X\) ~ U(0,1), complete the following.

\(\mu\) = ______

\(\sigma\) = ______

first quartile = ______

third quartile = ______

median = __________

Are the empirical values (the data) in the section titled Collect the Data close to the corresponding theoretical values? Why or why not?

Plot the Data

Construct a box plot of the data. Be sure to use a ruler to scale accurately and draw straight edges.

Do you notice any potential outliers? If so, which values are they? Either way, justify your answer numerically. (Recall that any DATA that are less than Q_{1} – 1.5(IQR) or more than Q_{3} + 1.5(IQR) are potential outliers. IQR means interquartile range.)

Compare the Data

For each of the following parts, use a complete sentence to comment on how the value obtained from the data compares to the theoretical value you expected from the distribution in the section titled Theoretical Distribution.

minimum value: _______

first quartile: _______

median: _______

third quartile: _______

maximum value: _______

width of IQR: _______

overall shape: _______

Based on your comments in the section titled Collect the Data, how does the box plot fit or not fit what you would expect of the distribution in the section titledTheoretical Distribution?

Discussion Question

Suppose that the number of values generated was 500, not 50. How would that affect what you would expect the empirical data to be and the shape of its graph to look like?