# 3: Descriptive Statistics

- Page ID
- 20007

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In this chapter, you will study numerical and graphical ways to describe and display your data. This area of statistics is called "Descriptive Statistics." You will learn how to calculate, and even more importantly, how to interpret these measurements and graphs.

- 3.1: Introduction
- In this chapter, you will study numerical and graphical ways to describe and display your data. This area of statistics is called "Descriptive Statistics." You will learn how to calculate, and even more importantly, how to interpret these measurements and graphs. In this chapter, we will briefly look at stem-and-leaf plots, line graphs, and bar graphs, as well as frequency polygons, and time series graphs. Our emphasis will be on histograms and box plots.

- 3.2: Measures of the Location of the Data
- The values that divide a rank-ordered set of data into 100 equal parts are called percentiles and are used to compare and interpret data. For example, an observation at the 50th percentile would be greater than 50 % of the other obeservations in the set. Quartiles divide data into quarters. The first quartile is the 25th percentile, the second quartile is 50th percentile, and the third quartile is the the 75th percentile. The interquartile range is the range of the middle 50 % of the data values

- 3.3: Box Plots
- Box plots are a type of graph that can help visually organize data. To graph a box plot the following data points must be calculated: the minimum value, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the maximum value. Once the box plot is graphed, you can display and compare distributions of data.

- 3.4: Measures of the Center of the Data
- The mean and the median can be calculated to help you find the "center" of a data set. The mean is the best estimate for the actual data set, but the median is the best measurement when a data set contains several outliers or extreme values. The mode will tell you the most frequently occurring datum (or data) in your data set. The mean, median, and mode are extremely helpful when you need to analyze your data.

- 3.5: Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
- Looking at the distribution of data can reveal a lot about the relationship between the mean, the median, and the mode. There are three types of distributions. A right (or positive) skewed distribution, a left (or negative) skewed distribution and a symmetrical distribution.

- 3.6: Measures of the Spread of the Data
- An important characteristic of any set of data is the variation in the data. In some data sets, the data values are concentrated closely near the mean; in other data sets, the data values are more widely spread out from the mean. The most common measure of variation, or spread, is the standard deviation. The standard deviation is a number that measures how far data values are from their mean.

- 3.7: Using Excel to Calculate Descriptive Statistics
- Using technology gives the ability to calculate descriptive statistics faster, with more precision, and allows the use of larger data sets. This section focuses on using Excel formulas to calculate some descriptive statistics already discussed in this chapter.

- 3.E: Descriptive Statistics (Exercises)
- These are homework exercises to accompany the Textmap created for "Introductory Statistics" by OpenStax.

## Contributors and Attributions

Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean (De Anza College) with many other contributing authors. Content produced by OpenStax College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/30189442-699...b91b9de@18.114.