# 29.4: Comparing Paired Observations (Section 28.5)

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) $$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$ $$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$ $$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$

$$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$

$$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$ $$\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}$$ $$\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}$$ $$\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}$$ $$\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}$$ $$\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}$$ $$\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}$$ $$\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}$$ $$\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}$$ $$\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}$$ $$\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}$$ $$\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}$$ $$\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}$$ $$\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}$$ $$\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}$$ $$\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}$$ $$\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}$$ $$\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}$$ $$\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}$$ $$\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}$$ $$\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}$$ $$\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}$$ $$\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}$$ $$\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}$$ $$\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}$$ $$\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}$$ $$\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}$$ $$\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}$$ $$\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}$$ $$\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}$$ $$\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}$$ $$\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}$$ $$\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}$$ $$\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}$$ $$\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}$$ $$\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}$$ $$\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}$$ $$\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}$$ $$\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}$$ $$\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}$$ $$\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}$$ $$\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}$$ $$\newcommand{\lt}{<}$$ $$\newcommand{\gt}{>}$$ $$\newcommand{\amp}{&}$$ $$\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}$$

Let’s look at how to perform a paired t-test in R. In this case, let’s generate some data for a set of individuals on two tests, where each indivdual varies in their overall ability, but there is also a practice effect such that performance on the second test is generally better than the first.

First, let’s see how big of a sample we will require to find a medium (d=0.5) sized effect. Let’s say that we want to be extra sure in our results, so we will find the sample size that gives us 95% power to find an effect if it’s there:

paired_power <- pwr.t.test(d=0.5, power=0.95, type='paired', alternative='greater')
paired_power
##
##      Paired t test power calculation
##
##               n = 45
##               d = 0.5
##       sig.level = 0.05
##           power = 0.95
##     alternative = greater
##
## NOTE: n is number of *pairs*

Now let’s generate a dataset with the required number of subjects:

subject_id <- seq(paired_power$n) # we code the tests as 0/1 so that we can simply # multiply this by the effect to generate the data test_id <- c(0,1) repeat_effect <- 5 noise_sd <- 5 subject_means <- rnorm(paired_power$n, mean=100, sd=15)
paired_data <- crossing(subject_id,test_id) %>%
mutate(subMean=subject_means[subject_id],
score=subject_means +
test_id*repeat_effect +
rnorm(paired_power$n, mean=noise_sd)) Let’s perform a paired t-test on these data. To do that, we need to separate the first and second test data into separate variables, which we can do by converting our long data frame into a wide data frame. paired_data_wide <- paired_data %>% spread(test_id, score) %>% rename(test1=0, test2=1) glimpse(paired_data_wide) ## Observations: 44 ## Variables: 4 ##$ subject_id <int> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,…
## $subMean <dbl> 116, 95, 103, 91, 97, 91, 89, 97, 99, … ##$ test1      <dbl> 121, 108, 102, 94, 105, 111, 110, 89, …
## $test2 <dbl> 104, 101, 102, 107, 108, 101, 157, 126… Now we can pass those new variables into the t.test() function: paired_ttest_result <- t.test(paired_data_wide$test1,
paired_data_wide$test2, type='paired') paired_ttest_result  ## ## Welch Two Sample t-test ## ## data: paired_data_wide$test1 and paired_data_wide\$test2
## t = -1, df = 73, p-value = 0.2
## alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0
## 95 percent confidence interval:
##  -10.5   2.3
## sample estimates:
## mean of x mean of y
##       108       112

This analysis is a bit trickier to perform using the linear model, because we need to estimate a separate intercept for each subject in order to account for the overall differences between subjects. We can’t do this using lm() but we can do it using a function called lmer() from the lme4 package. To do this, we need to add (1|subject_id) to the formula, which tells lmer() to add a separate intercept (“1”) for each value of subject_id.

paired_test_lmer <- lmer(score ~ test_id + (1|subject_id),
data=paired_data)
summary(paired_test_lmer)
## Linear mixed model fit by REML. t-tests use Satterthwaite's method [
## lmerModLmerTest]
## Formula: score ~ test_id + (1 | subject_id)
##    Data: paired_data
##
## REML criterion at convergence: 719
##
## Scaled residuals:
##     Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max
## -2.5424 -0.6214 -0.0929  0.7349  2.9793
##
## Random effects:
##  Groups     Name        Variance Std.Dev.
##  subject_id (Intercept)   0       0.0
##  Residual               228      15.1
## Number of obs: 88, groups:  subject_id, 44
##
## Fixed effects:
##             Estimate Std. Error     df t value Pr(>|t|)
## (Intercept)   107.59       2.28  86.00   47.26   <2e-16 ***
## test_id         4.12       3.22  86.00    1.28      0.2
## ---
## Signif. codes:  0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
##
## Correlation of Fixed Effects:
##         (Intr)
## test_id -0.707
## convergence code: 0
## boundary (singular) fit: see ?isSingular

This gives a similar answer to the standard paired t-test. The advantage is that it’s more flexible, allowing us to perform repeated measures analyses, as we will see below.

This page titled 29.4: Comparing Paired Observations (Section 28.5) is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Russell A. Poldrack via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform.