Skip to main content
Statistics LibreTexts

15.6: Notes and Sources

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    1. Talk of the Nation, National Public Radio Archives,
    2. John Cimbaro, Fish Anatomy,
    3. Chen Zheng‐Long, Chinese Koi Fish,‐kf135‐1
    4. Richard Christian Looijen, Holism and Reductionism in Biology and Ecology: The Mutual Dependence of Higher and Lower Level Research Programmes, Springer, 2000
    5. The Poems of John Godfrey Saxe (Highgate Edition), Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1881
    6. Donna Young, American Society of Health System Pharmacists, April 6, 2007,
    7. The Lancet, news release, June 29, 2009,
    8. Creative Commons,‐sa/4.0/
    9. Apple, Inc. (AAPL) (2017). Profile, business summary. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved   from
    10. Gallup Organization (2017). Polling on Crime. Retrieved from
    11. Pew Research Center (2013). Crime rises among second‐generation immigrants as they assimilate. Retrieved from‐tank/2013/10/15/crime‐rises‐among‐second‐ generation‐immigrants‐as‐they‐assimilate/
    12. Statista, the Statistics Portal (2017). Reported violent crime rate in the United States from 1990 to 2015. Retrieved from‐violent‐crime‐rate‐in‐the‐ usa‐since‐1990/
    13. The Next Big Future (2008). Deaths per TWH by energy source. Retrieved from‐per‐twh‐by‐energy‐source.html
    14. 2000 United States Census, Sample of 500 adults from Santa Clara County, CA, 2000
    15. Reuter/Ispos Polling, Approve/Disapprove of President Trump, August 17, 2017,, August 18, 2017
    16. ABC News Washington Post Poll, Biggest Gender Gaps in Job Approval. Retrieved from‐approve‐trumps‐response‐charlottesville‐poll/story?id=49334079, August 21, 2017.
    17., Dishonest Fox Charts: Obamacare Enrollment Edition (2014).  Retrieved from‐fox‐charts‐obamacare‐enrollment‐ editi/198679, August 26, 2017.
    18. By Rodolfo Hermans (Godot) at en.wikipedia. ‐ Own work; transferred from en.wikipedia by Rodolfo Hermans (Godot)., CC BY‐SA 3.0,
    19. African American College Students in Computer Room, E‐Learning Africa News, http://ela‐‐matters‐is‐government‐policy‐on‐creating‐local‐open‐educational‐ resources/african‐american‐college‐students‐in‐computer‐room‐3/, Feb 2013
    20. By David Adam Kess (Own work) [CC BY‐SA 4.0 (‐sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
    21. By Benjamin D. Esham / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY‐SA 3.0 us,
    22. Axios, Irma captured America's attention more than other storms, Irma captured America's attention more than other storms, Sept 25, 2017  
    23. By English: Airman Bo J. Flannigan, U.S. Navy [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
    24. By LPS.1 ‐ Own work, CC0,
    25. Lightbulb Books, The Average Bears: Mr. Mean, Mr. Median & Mr. Mode,‐content/uploads/Mean‐Median‐Mode.jpg
    26. Skewness graph, A Square School,‐content/uploads/2015/08/skewness.jpg
    27. "Daily high temperatures for downtown San Francisco and St. Louis Airport" NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, 2016. Web. 5 Sep 2017.‐access
    28. CC BY‐SA 1.0,
    29. By Daniel Schwen ‐ Own work, CC BY‐SA 4.0,
    30. Taleb, Nicholas, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Penguin, 2007.
    31. Taleb, Nicholas, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Penguin, 2007.
    32. Fundamentals eBook, The Science of Physical Geography, 2015,
    33. Nable, Mosley, Witt, Davis, Is GPA affected by hours studying, classes missed, and age?, February 2012, StatCrunch,
    34. Leak, William B, Relationships of Tree Age to Diameter in Old‐Growth Northern Hardwoods and Spruce‐Fir, United States Department of Agriculture, 1985.
    35. StatCrunch, Guns and Gun Deaths by Country, August 2016,
    36. National Geographic, Nick Cage Movies Vs. Drownings, and more strange (but spurious) correlations, Illustration Photographs by (L) Fotos International, Getty (R) Bernadett Szabo, Corbis, September 2015, http://phenomena.nationalgeographic....015/09/11/nick‐cage‐movies‐vs‐drownings‐and‐more‐ strange‐but‐spurious‐correlations/
    37. Sharks Ice Cream Store, Bloomfield New York,
    38. BBC, Bitsize ‐ Discussing Results, Drawing Inferences and Conclusions,, 2017
    39. Munroe, Randall, Correlation, XKCD,, 2016
    40. "Censuses: Costing the count". The Economist.  Jun, 2011.  
    41. Pew Research Center, 15% of American Adults Have Used Online Dating Sites or Mobile Dating Apps, Feb 2016,‐percent‐of‐american‐adults‐have‐used‐online‐ dating‐sites‐or‐mobile‐dating‐apps/
    42. By Corpse Reviver (Own work) [GFDL ( or CC‐BY‐SA‐3.0 (‐sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
    43. Mentzoni, et. al., Tempo in electronic gaming machines affects behavior among at‐risk gamblers , Journal of Behavioral Addictions, Sep 22, 2012.  
    44. By Charles O'Rear (1941—), Environmental Protection Agency Public Domain,
    45. Z. Ondogan, O. Pamuk, E.N. Ondogan, A. Ozguney (2005)."Improving the Appearance of All Textile Products from Clothing to HomeTextile Using Laser Technology," Optics and Laser Technology, Vol. 37, pp. 631‐637.
    46. By Dan Kernler (Own work) [CC BY‐SA 4.0 (‐sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
    47. TJ's Flying Adventure, Random airport traffic light,
    48. By Dan Kernler ‐ Own work, CC BY‐SA 4.0,
    49. By Dan Kernler ‐ Own work, CC BY‐SA 4.0,
    50. Pew Research Center (2016). Social Meida Conversations about race,‐media‐conversations‐about‐race/
    51. By Dan Kernler ‐ Own work, CC BY‐SA 4.0,
    52. Morin, Parker, Stepler, Mercer. Behind the Badge, Pew Research Center (2017).‐the‐badge/
    53. By Ed Yourdon from New York City, USA (Helping the homeless  Uploaded by Gary Dee) [CC BY‐SA 2.0 (‐sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
    54. Bill Wilson Center of Santa Clara County, Count Me! Hidden in Plain Sight: Documenting Homeless Youth Populations in 2017, September 2017
    55. Rogers, Katie. Boaty McBoatface: What You Get When You Let the Internet Decide, The New York Times, March 21, 2016.
    56., Boaty McBoatface wins $370M ship naming competition, these are the other names in the poll,‐mcboatface‐wins‐370m‐ship‐naming‐competition‐these‐are‐ the‐other‐names‐in‐the‐poll
    57. The Two‐way, Breaking News from NPR,‐ way/2017/03/13/519976028/boaty‐mcboatface‐prepares‐for‐first‐antarctic‐mission, March 2017
    58., Al Gore’s New Movie Expose the Big Flaw in Online Movie Ratings, Sept 2017,‐gores‐new‐movie‐exposes‐the‐big‐flaw‐in‐online‐movie‐ratings/
    59. The Hill, GOP rep’s Obamacare Twitter poll backfires, January 4, 2017,‐the‐ know/in‐the‐know/312674‐gop‐reps‐twitter‐poll‐doesnt‐go‐as‐planned
    60. Mathios, Diane. De Anza College, Notes on Selection and Response Biases
    61. By Donald Trump August 19, 2015 (cropped).jpg: BU Rob13 Hillary Clinton by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg: Gage [GFDL ( or CC BY‐SA 4.0 (‐sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
    62. Pew Research Center (2016). Why 2016 Election Polls Missed the Mark,‐tank/2016/11/09/why‐2016‐election‐polls‐missed‐their‐mark/
    63. Dropp & Nyhan, Nearly Half of Americans Don’t Know Puerto Ricans Are Fellow Citizens, The New York Times, September 26, 2017.‐half‐of‐americans‐ dont‐know‐people‐in‐puerto‐ricoans‐are‐fellow‐citizens.html?_r=0
    64. CNN, Election 2016, National President Exit Polls, November 23, 2016,‐polls/national/president
    65. Data and photo retrieved from the National Hurricane Center, NOAA,
    66. By Keith Allison from Hanover, MD, USA ‐ Draymond Green, CC BY‐SA 2.0,
    67. By Heather Smith (The Alloy Valve Stockist's photo gallery.) [CC BY‐SA 3.0 (‐sa/3.0) or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons
    68. Shell Oil Refinery, Martinez CA. CC SA 1.0,
    69. SountTransit, Sounder Commuter train. Schedule retrieved October 14, 2017
    70. Fisher, Stacy B, The California Community Colleges Board of Governors Fee Waiver: A Comparison of State Aid Programs, California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office, Jan 2016
    71. Ronald Walpole & Raymond Meyers & Keying Ye, Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists. Pearson Education, 2002, 7th edition.
    72. Taleb, Nicholas, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Penguin, 2007.
    73. Food and Drug Administration, FDA Consumer Magazine , Jan/Feb 2003
    74. Mark Blumenthal, Is Polling as we Know it Doomed?, The National Journal Online,, August 10, 2009
    75. Russ Lenth, Java Applets for Power and Sample Size, University of Iowa , , 2009
    76. J. B. Orris, MegaStat for Excel, Version 10.1, Butler University, 2007
    77. The American Statistical Association, Statement on Statistical Significance and P‐Values ,March 7, 2016
    78. Trafimow and Marks, Editorial, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Volume 37, 2015, Issue 1.
    79. Munroe, Randall, XKCD, Significant,, 2013
    80. Munroe, Randall, XKCD, P‐values,, 2015
    81. Shlomo S. Sawilowsky, Fermat, Schubert, Einstein, and Behrens‐Fisher: The Probable Difference Between Two Means When \(\sigma_{1}^{2} \neq \sigma_{2}^{2}\), Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, Vol. 1, No 2, Fall 2002
    82. Mastin, Luke, Right Left, Right Wrong? An Investigation of Handedness,, 2012
    83. Feuer, Alan. AR‐15 Rifles Are Beloved, Reviled and a Common Element in Mass Shootings New York Times,‐15‐rifles‐are‐beloved‐reviled‐and‐ a‐common‐element‐in‐mass‐shootings.html, June 2016
    84. Pew Research Center, Opinions on Gun Policy and the 2016 Campaign , Aug 2016, http://www.people‐‐on‐gun‐policy‐and‐the‐2016‐campaign/
    85. Lowry, Richard. One Way ANOVA – Independent Samples., 2011
    86. NIST/SEMATECH e‐Handbook of Statistical Methods,, Section's Method, April, 2016
    87. Munroe, Randall, XKCD, Linear Regression,, 2016

    Additional reference used but not specifically cited: Dean Fearn, Elliot Nebenzahl, Maurice Geraghty, Student Guide for Elementary Business Statistics, Kendall/Hunt, 2003

    This page titled 15.6: Notes and Sources is shared under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Maurice A. Geraghty via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.