1.6: Variables
 Page ID
 268
Learning Objectives
 Define and distinguish between independent and dependent variables
 Define and distinguish between discrete and continuous variables
 Define and distinguish between qualitative and quantitative variables
Independent and Dependent variables
Variables are properties or characteristics of some event, object, or person that can take on different values or amounts (as opposed to constants such as \(\pi \) that do not vary). When conducting research, experimenters often manipulate variables. For example, an experimenter might compare the effectiveness of four types of antidepressants. In this case, the variable is "type of antidepressant." When a variable is manipulated by an experimenter, it is called an independent variable. The experiment seeks to determine the effect of the independent variable on relief from depression. In this example, relief from depression is called a dependent variable. In general, the independent variable is manipulated by the experimenter and its effects on the dependent variable are measured.
Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)
Can blueberries slow down aging? A study indicates that antioxidants found in blueberries may slow down the process of aging. In this study, \(19\)monthold rats (equivalent to \(60\)yearold humans) were fed either their standard diet or a diet supplemented by either blueberry, strawberry, or spinach powder. After eight weeks, the rats were given memory and motor skills tests. Although all supplemented rats showed improvement, those supplemented with blueberry powder showed the most notable improvement.
 What is the independent variable?
 What are the dependent variables?
Solution
 dietary supplement: none, blueberry, strawberry, and spinach
 memory test and motor skills test
More information on the blueberry study
Example \(\PageIndex{2}\)
Does betacarotene protect against cancer? Betacarotene supplements have been thought to protect against cancer. However, a study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute suggests this is false. The study was conducted with \(39,000\) women aged \(45\) and up. These women were randomly assigned to receive a betacarotene supplement or a placebo, and their health was studied over their lifetime. Cancer rates for women taking the betacarotene supplement did not differ systematically from the cancer rates of those women taking the placebo.
 What is the independent variable?
 What is the dependent variable?
Solution
 supplements: betacarotene or placebo
 occurrence of cancer
Example \(\PageIndex{3}\)
How bright is right? An automobile manufacturer wants to know how bright brake lights should be in order to minimize the time required for the driver of a following car to realize that the car in front is stopping and to hit the brakes.
 What is the independent variable?
 What is the dependent variable?
Solution
 brightness of brake lights
 time to hit brakes
Levels of an Independent Variable: Experiments and Controls
If an experiment compares an experimental treatment with a control treatment, then the independent variable (type of treatment) has two levels: experimental and control. If an experiment were comparing five types of diets, then the independent variable (type of diet) would have five levels. In general, the number of levels of an independent variable is the number of experimental conditions.
Qualitative and Quantitative Variables
An important distinction between variables is between qualitative variables and quantitative variables. Qualitative variables are those that express a qualitative attribute such as hair color, eye color, religion, favorite movie, gender, and so on. The values of a qualitative variable do not imply a numerical ordering. Values of the variable “religion” differ qualitatively; no ordering of religions is implied. Qualitative variables are sometimes referred to as categorical variables. Quantitative variables are those variables that are measured in terms of numbers. Some examples of quantitative variables are height, weight, and shoe size.
In the study on the effect of diet discussed in Example \(\PageIndex{1}\), the independent variable was type of supplement: none, strawberry, blueberry, and spinach. The variable "type of supplement" is a qualitative variable; there is nothing quantitative about it. In contrast, the dependent variable "memory test" is a quantitative variable since memory performance was measured on a quantitative scale (number correct).
Discrete and Continuous Variables
Variables such as number of children in a household are called discrete variables since the possible scores are discrete points on the scale. For example, a household could have three children or six children, but not \(4.53\) children. Other variables such as "time to respond to a question" are continuous variables since the scale is continuous and not made up of discrete steps. The response time could be \(1.64\) seconds, or it could be \(1.64237123922121\) seconds. Of course, the practicalities of measurement preclude most measured variables from being truly continuous.
Contributors
Online Statistics Education: A Multimedia Course of Study (http://onlinestatbook.com/). Project Leader: David M. Lane, Rice University.

Heidi Ziemer