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Introduction to Probability and Statistics Linear Regression and Correlation

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Example Let y be a student’s college achievement, measured by his/her GPA. This might be a function of several variables: x 1 = rank in high school class x 2 = high school’s overall rating x 3 = high school GPA x 4 = SAT scores We want to predict y using knowledge of x 1, x 2, x 3 and x 4.

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Some Questions Which of the independent variables are useful and which are not? How could we create a prediction equation to allow us to predict y using knowledge of x 1, x 2, x 3 etc? How good is this prediction? We start with the simplest case, in which the response y is a function of a single independent variable, x.

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A Simple Linear Model We use the equation of a line to describe the relationship between y and x for a sample of n pairs, (x, y). If we want to describe the relationship between y and x for the whole population, there are two models we can choose Deterministic Model: y = x Probabilistic Model: –y = deterministic model + random error –y = x Deterministic Model: y = x Probabilistic Model: –y = deterministic model + random error –y = x

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A Simple Linear Model exactly Since the measurements that we observe do not generally fall exactly on a straight line, we choose to use: Probabilistic Model: y = x y = x E(y) = x E(y) = x Points deviate from the line of means line of means by an amount where has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 2.

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The Random Error E(y) = x, The line of means, E(y) = x, describes average value of y for any fixed value of x. The population of measurements is generated as y deviates from the population line by . We estimate andusing sample information.

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The Method of Least Squares The equation of the best-fitting line is calculated using a set of n pairs (x i, y i ). We choose our estimates a and b to estimate and so that the vertical distances of the points from the line, are minimized. Applet

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Least Squares Estimators

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Example The table shows the math achievement test scores for a random sample of n = 10 college freshmen, along with their final calculus grades. Student12345678910 Math test, x39432164574728753452 Calculus grade, y65785282928973985675 Use your calculator to find the sums and sums of squares.

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Example

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total sum of squares The total variation in the experiment is measured by the total sum of squares: The Analysis of Variance Total SS The Total SS is divided into two parts: SSR SSR (sum of squares for regression): measures the variation explained by using x in the model. SSE SSE (sum of squares for error): measures the leftover variation not explained by x.

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The Analysis of Variance We calculate

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The ANOVA Table Total df = Mean Squares Regression df = Error df = n -1 1 n –1 – 1 = n - 2 MSR = SSR/(1) MSE = SSE/(n-2) SourcedfSSMSF Regression1SSRSSR/(1)MSR/MSE Errorn - 2SSESSE/(n-2) Totaln -1Total SS

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The Calculus Problem SourcedfSSMSF Regression11449.9741 19.14 Error8606.025975.7532 Total92056.0000

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Testing the Usefulness of the Model The first question to ask is whether the independent variable x is of any use in predicting y. If it is not, then the value of y does not change, regardless of the value of x. This implies that the slope of the line, , is zero.

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Testing the Usefulness of the Model The test statistic is function of b, our best estimate of Using MSE as the best estimate of the random variation 2, we obtain a t statistic.

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The Calculus Problem Is there a significant relationship between the calculus grades and the test scores at the 5% level of significance? Applet Reject H 0 when |t| > 2.306. Since t = 4.38 falls into the rejection region, H 0 is rejected. There is a significant linear relationship between the calculus grades and the test scores for the population of college freshmen.

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The F Test You can test the overall usefulness of the model using an F test. If the model is useful, MSR will be large compared to the unexplained variation, MSE. This test is exactly equivalent to the t-test, with t 2 = F.

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Measuring the Strength of the Relationship If the independent variable x is of useful in predicting y, you will want to know how well the model fits. The strength of the relationship between x and y can be measured using:

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Measuring the Strength of the Relationship Since Total SS = SSR + SSE, r 2 measures the proportion of the total variation in the responses that can be explained by using the independent variable x in the model. the percent reduction the total variation by using the regression equation rather than just using the sample mean y-bar to estimate y. For the calculus problem, r 2 =.705 or 70.5%. The model is working well!

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Interpreting a Significant Regression Even if you do not reject the null hypothesis that the slope of the line equals 0, it does not necessarily mean that y and x are unrelated. Type II error—falsely declaring that the slope is 0 and that x and y are unrelated. It may happen that y and x are perfectly related in a nonlinear way.

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Some Cautions You may have fit the wrong model. Extrapolation—predicting values of y outside the range of the fitted data. Causality—Do not conclude that x causes y. There may be an unknown variable at work!

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Checking the Regression Assumptions 1.The relationship between x and y is linear, given by y = + x + 2.The random error terms are independent and, for any value of x, have a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 2. 1.The relationship between x and y is linear, given by y = + x + 2.The random error terms are independent and, for any value of x, have a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 2. Remember that the results of a regression analysis are only valid when the necessary assumptions have been satisfied.

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Diagnostic Tools 1.Normal probability plot of residuals 2.Plot of residuals versus fit or residuals versus variables 1.Normal probability plot of residuals 2.Plot of residuals versus fit or residuals versus variables We use the following diagnostic tools to check the normality assumption and the assumption of equal variances.

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Residuals residual errorThe residual error is the “leftover” variation in each data point after the variation explained by the regression model has been removed. normalIf all assumptions have been met, these residuals should be normal, with mean 0 and variance 2.

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If the normality assumption is valid, the plot should resemble a straight line, sloping upward to the right. If not, you will often see the pattern fail in the tails of the graph. If the normality assumption is valid, the plot should resemble a straight line, sloping upward to the right. If not, you will often see the pattern fail in the tails of the graph. Normal Probability Plot

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If the equal variance assumption is valid, the plot should appear as a random scatter around the zero center line. If not, you will see a pattern in the residuals. If the equal variance assumption is valid, the plot should appear as a random scatter around the zero center line. If not, you will see a pattern in the residuals. Residuals versus Fits

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Estimation and Prediction Once you have determined that the regression line is useful used the diagnostic plots to check for violation of the regression assumptions. You are ready to use the regression line to Estimate the average value of y for a given value of x Predict a particular value of y for a given value of x.

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Estimation and Prediction Estimating the average value of y when x = x 0 Estimating a particular value of y when x = x 0

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Estimation and Prediction The best estimate of either E(y) or y for a given value x = x 0 is Particular values of y are more difficult to predict, requiring a wider range of values in the prediction interval.

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Estimation and Prediction

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The Calculus Problem Estimate the average calculus grade for students whose achievement score is 50 with a 95% confidence interval.

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The Calculus Problem Estimate the calculus grade for a particular student whose achievement score is 50 with a 95% confidence interval. Notice how much wider this interval is!

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Correlation Analysis coefficient of correlationThe strength of the relationship between x and y is measured using the coefficient of correlation: (1)-1 r 1 (2) r and b have the same sign (3)r 0 means no linear relationship (4) r 1 or –1 means a strong (+) or (-) relationship

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Example The table shows the heights and weights of n = 10 randomly selected college football players. Player12345678910 Height, x73717572 7567697169 Weight, y185175200210190195150170180175 Use your calculator to find the sums and sums of squares.

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Football Players r =.8261 Strong positive correlation As the player’s height increases, so does his weight. r =.8261 Strong positive correlation As the player’s height increases, so does his weight.

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Some Correlation Patterns Exploring CorrelationUse the Exploring Correlation applet to explore some correlation patterns: Applet r = 0; No correlation r =.931; Strong positive correlation r = 1; Linear relationship r = -.67; Weaker negative correlation

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Inference using r coefficient of correlationThe population coefficient of correlation is called (“rho”). We can test for a significant correlation between x and y using a t test: This test is exactly equivalent to the t-test for the slope .

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Example Is there a significant positive correlation between weight and height in the population of all college football players? Use the t-table with n-2 = 8 df to bound the p-value as p-value <.005. There is a significant positive correlation. Applet

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