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1.R References

  1. T. C. Fry, 2nd ed. (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1965).

  2. E. Czuber, 3rd ed. (Berlin: Teubner, 1914).

  3. K. Pearson, “Science and Monte Carlo," , vol. 55 (1894), p. 193; cited in S. M. Stigler, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986).

  4. For a detailed discussion of random numbers, see D. E. Knuth, vol. II (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1969).

  5. D. D. McCracken, “The Monte Carlo Method," vol. 192 (May 1955), p. 90.

  6. W. Feller, vol. 1, 3rd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1968), p. xi.

  7. G. Casanova, vol. IV, Chap. 7, trans. W. R. Trask (New York: Harcourt-Brace, 1968), p. 124.

  8. Quoted in the ed. S. Putnam (New York: Viking, 1946), p. 113.

  9. Le Marquise de Condorcet, (Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1785).

  10. W. M. Thackerey, (London: Bradbury and Evans, 1854–55).

  11. See K. McKean, “Decisions, Decisions," June 1985, pp. 22–31. Kevin McKean, Discover Magazine, ©1987 Family Media, Inc. Reprinted with permission. This popular article reports on the work of Tverksy et. al. in (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).

  12. ibid.

  13. G. Pólya, “Two Incidents," ed. T. Dalenius, G. Karlsson, and S. Malmquist (Uppsala: Almquist & Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, 1970).

  14. I. Hacking, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975).

  15. O. Ore, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953).

  16. J. d’Alembert, “Croix ou Pile," in ed. Diderot, vol. 4 (Paris, 1754).

  17. O. Ore, op. cit., p. 189.

  18. O. Ore, “Pascal and the Invention of Probability Theory,” , vol. 67 (1960), pp. 409–419.

  19. ibid., p. 414.

  20. F. N. David, (London: G. Griffin, 1962), p. 230 ff.

  21. ibid., p. 239ff.

  22. See Knot X, in Lewis Carroll, vol. 2 (Dover, 1958).

  23. K. McKean, “Decisions, Decisions," pp. 22–31.

  24. M. Sholander, Problem #1034, vol. 52, no. 3 (May 1979), p. 183.

  25. S. Benkoski, Comment on Problem #1034, vol. 52, no. 3 (May 1979), pp. 183-184.

  26. M. vos Savant, , 3 March 1996, p. 14.