# 29.2: Comparing Two Means (Section 28.2)

To compare two means from independent samples, we can use the two-sample t-test. Let’s say that we want to compare blood pressure of smokers and non-smokers; we don’t have an expectation for the direction, so we will use a two-sided test. First let’s perform a power analysis, again for a small effect:

power_results_2sample <- pwr.t.test(d=0.2, power=0.8,
type='two.sample'
)
power_results_2sample
##
##      Two-sample t test power calculation
##
##               n = 393
##               d = 0.2
##       sig.level = 0.05
##           power = 0.8
##     alternative = two.sided
##
## NOTE: n is number in *each* group

This tells us that we need 394 subjects in each group, so let’s sample 394 smokers and 394 nonsmokers from the NHANES dataset, and then put them into a single data frame with a variable denoting their smoking status.

nonsmoker_df <- NHANES_adult %>%
dplyr::filter(SmokeNow=="Yes") %>%
drop_na(BPSysAve) %>%
dplyr::select(BPSysAve,SmokeNow) %>%
sample_n(power_results_2sample$n) smoker_df <- NHANES_adult %>% dplyr::filter(SmokeNow=="No") %>% drop_na(BPSysAve) %>% dplyr::select(BPSysAve,SmokeNow) %>% sample_n(power_results_2sample$n)

sample_df <- smoker_df %>%
bind_rows(nonsmoker_df)

Let’s test our hypothesis using a standard two-sample t-test. We can use the formula notation to specify the analysis, just like we would for lm().

t.test(BPSysAve ~ SmokeNow, data=sample_df)
##
##  Welch Two Sample t-test
##
## data:  BPSysAve by SmokeNow
## t = 4, df = 775, p-value = 3e-05
## alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0
## 95 percent confidence interval:
##  2.9 7.8
## sample estimates:
##  mean in group No mean in group Yes
##               125               120

This shows us that there is a significant difference, though the direction is surprising: Smokers have lower blood pressure!

Let’s look at the Bayes factor to quantify the evidence:

sample_df <- sample_df %>%
mutate(SmokeNowInt=as.integer(SmokeNow))
ttestBF(formula=BPSysAve ~ SmokeNowInt,
data=sample_df)
## Bayes factor analysis
## --------------
##  Alt., r=0.707 : 440 ±0%
##
## Against denominator:
##   Null, mu1-mu2 = 0
## ---
## Bayes factor type: BFindepSample, JZS

This shows that there is very strong evidence against the null hypothesis of no difference.