Skip to main content
Statistics LibreTexts

7: Correlation and Simple Linear Regression

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    • 7.1: Correlation
      In many studies, we measure more than one variable for each individual. We collect pairs of data and instead of examining each variable separately (univariate data), we want to find ways to describe bivariate data, in which two variables are measured on each subject in our sample. Given such data, we begin by determining if there is a relationship between these two variables. As the values of one variable change, do we see corresponding changes in the other variable?
    • 7.2: Simple Linear Regression
      Once we have identified two variables that are correlated, we would like to model this relationship. We want to use one variable as a predictor or explanatory variable to explain the other variable, the response or dependent variable. In order to do this, we need a good relationship between our two variables. The model can then be used to predict changes in our response variable. A strong relationship between the predictor variable and the response variable leads to a good model.
    • 7.3: Population Model
      We use the means and standard deviations of our sample data to compute the slope (b1) and y-intercept (b0) in order to create an ordinary least-squares regression line. But we want to describe the relationship between y and x in the population, not just within our sample data. We want to construct a population model. Now we will think of the least-squares line computed from a sample as an estimate of the true regression line for the population.
    • 7.4: Software Solution

    7: Correlation and Simple Linear Regression is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Diane Kiernan via source content that was edited to conform to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

    • Was this article helpful?